Pain results from diverse pathological situations at different anatomical sites.  Causes of pain include cancer, inflammation or tissue injury, and injury or lesions of the nervous system. Diverse chronic widespread pain syndromes may also occur owing to abnormal amplification states in the central nervous system.  All of these can lead through abnormal activity in nociceptive systems, to pain in the absence of a stimulus (spontaneous pain), exaggerated responses to noxious stimuli (hyperalgesia) and pain evoked by normally innocuous stimuli (allodynia).

Further reading

Costigan (2009) Neuropathic pain: a maladaptive response of the nervous system to damage. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32 1 doi:10.1146/annurev.neuro.051508.135531

Alles and Smith (2018) Drugs for Neuropathic Pain. Pharmacological Reviews 70(2) 315 DOI:

Raja et al (2020 The revised International Association for the Study of Pain definition of pain: concepts, challenges, and compromises, PAIN 161(9) 1976 doi: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001939

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